Homeostasis of the tear film involves delicate hormonal and neuronal regulatory mechanisms. The eye appears to be a target organ for sex hormones, particularly the androgens, as they modulate the immune system and trophic functions of the lacrimal glands and the functioning of the meibomian glands. The cornea, lacrimal glands, mucous cells, and meibomian glands are all richly innervated, indicating the importance of nervous regulation in their function. Parasympathetic, sympathetic, and sensory innervation play complex stimulatory or inhibitory roles, and neuronal pathways interact via complex surface results cascades. Abnormalities at any point in these pathways can cause overall dysregulation of lacrimal function. Whatever the initial causes of dry eye, chronic dryness of the ocular surface results in inflammatory reactions and gradual destruction of the lacrimal glands and conjunctival epithelium. Once dry eye disease has developed, inflammation is the key mechanism of ocular surface injury, as both the cause and consequence of cell damage. In practice, dry eye can be associated with Sjögren’s syndrome, allergies, infection, blepharitis, and preservative-containing eye drops.
Dry Eye is a multifactorial pathology of the tears and the ocular surface that brings symptoms like discomfort, visual disturbances, instability of the tear film with potential damage to the ocular surface. It is accompanied by an increase of the osmolarity of the tear film and by the inflammation of the ocular surface. The term Dry Eye includes different typologies and classifications of the same pathology. The different degrees are determined thanks to the individuation of the typology of tear deficiency. In this classification are included:
- Dry eye by reduced tear production (ADDE)
- Dry eye by augmented evaporation (EDE)
- The pathologies of eyelids symptomatic, including Meibomian Glands Dysfunction (MGD).
Thanks to the innovative protocol I.C.P. Dry eye (usable with I.C.P. Tearscope and MGD), in a few and fast steps inside a wizard will be possible to classify in automatic and precise way the dry eye category in relation to the made examinations so as to be able to undertake the treatment more suitable for the solution of the problem. Exploiting the technology of I.C.P. Tearscope, will be defined on which tear layer there is a deficiency, analyzing singly:
- Thickness of the lipid layer LLT
- Mucin analysis (through N.I.B.U.T. o B.U.T.)
- Quantitative analysis of the aqueous layer with calculation of tear meniscus
- Classification of possible corneal / conjunctival Staining.
Subsequently, through the I.C.P. MGD technology, with a simple photo will be ascertained the state of the Meibomian Glands that in a guided way will calculate the area of loss and the active area of the glands.
- The instrument in a few seconds allows to take photo with 8MP in resolution in infrared vision, making visible in each environment condition the presence/absence of the glands on the eyelid.
- The analysis of the glands happens in a guided way thanks to the advanced recognition software that studies the eyelid through the use of dedicated filters in real time after the acquisition.